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However, the recapture of Jerusalem by Halag al-Dcnthe repulsionof the Mongol army by Baybars al-Bunduqdarc and the evictionof the Crusaders from Palestine resulted in affirming the Sunniteregime Philips 109B5599 Monitor Islam. Now the Muslim people could not ignore the comfortableand luxurious life of the dhimmcs living around them. They now had tobe treated according to a rule of differentiation ghiyar from Muslims. The influential amirs and ulama requested Sultan al-Nahir to proclaimnew regulations based on the Pact of Umar.


In the sultan tookpositive measures to revive the Pact of Umar and did introduce somenew regulations, inducing a decree that non-Muslims had to wear identify-ing colored turbans: However, Sultan al-Nahir endeavored personally to relax the humiliatingdecree, even at the price of exciting the anger of the conservative ulama. He refused to believe that every fire or other calamity during these yearswas the result of a Christian conspiracy. Philips 109B5599 Monitor

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But fanaticism had increasedamong the ulama and the Muslim masses, forming the public opinionagainst the dhimmcs. As al-Maqrczc states, after the new regulations wereproclaimed, many Copts converted to Islam, some intending to retaintheir social positions, others detesting having to wear blue turbans and ridedonkeys Kitab al-Sulek, I, During the third reign of al-Nahir we find some Coptic Muslims Muslimanc al-Qibi serving in the cadre of the Mamluk administration. For example, Taj al-Dcn al-Iawcl, who proposed the cadastral survey inEgypt, was skilled in accounting and finance, and Philips 109B5599 Monitor well thefeatures of each Egyptian district. Even after his conversion, it is said thathe strongly favored the Coptic people. Asad al-Shaqqc was also a Copticconvert to Islam, and was Philips 109B5599 Monitor known as al-Shaqqc al-Agwal Squint-eyed Oppressor due to his nefarious conduct.

When Taj al-Dcn al-Iawcldied inhe was appointed najir al-dawla and administered stateaffairs single-handedly. He must have been confidentconcerning the success of policies to regulate the dhimmcs and such Muslimminorities as the Nuhayrc sect. His decisions had been strongly hoped forand strongly supported by the ulama and the common Muslims.

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As mentioned previously, state policy toward religious minorities duringthe Mamluk period was closely related to both external and internal condi-tions. We observe that the external conditions caused much social tensionamong Muslims in Egypt and Syria, which was Philips 109B5599 Monitor increased by thoseulama who demanded that the dhimmcs be dismissed from administrativeoffices.

This shows clearly that the Mamluk sultans did not adopt oppressivepolicies against the minorities because they themselves were aliens fromthe non-Islamic world. Consequently, we may conclude that researchers ofsymbiosis Philips 109B5599 Monitor still have to study the various conditions that enabledsuch coexistence; and those who study conflicts must consider the politicaland social factors that caused them, rather than attributing such conflicts tothe religious characteristics of Islam or its social system. Cambridge University Press,;M. Cohen, What was the Pact of Umar?

Dussaud, Histoire et religion des Nohairs Paris, ; D. McLaurin New York, ; M. His son, al-Asad, was the author of Qawancn al-Dawawcn.

Vikr One of the most problematic aspects of the study of Islam in history is howto interpret the relationship between religion and politics in Muslimsocieties. A major theme for Philips 109B5599 Monitor theorists, the popular expressionis often that there is no distinction between the two that in Islam,religion is politics and politics is religion.

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This view is happily adopted byyoung Muslim activists, who Philips 109B5599 Monitor the decadence of the Muslim worldtoday with the impious division of the secular from the religious. But of course this is a slogan, not a description of an existing reality. Thedistinction between religion, dcn, and state, dawla, certainly exists bothin Islamic thought and Philips 109B5599 Monitor practice. That the Muslim ruler is thecommander of the faithful does not make him a religious figure, nor is thelaw regulating the sale of apples a religious law just because its ultimateauthority is a statement from the Prophet Mugammad.

How the relationbetween political and religious authority should be was contested inearly Islam. That was the prerogativeof a class of scholars who increasingly saw links to the political authoritiesas a sign of corruption. When we in later times see religious figures or pious organizationsplaying a part in political struggles, we cannot therefore merely consider ita Muslim normality that deserves no comment. When religious and thepolitical structures coincide, it is rather an anomaly that requires someexplanation outside the sphere of religious thought itself. That is clearly the case when we look at the many cases where Muslimreligious figures, and in particular brotherhoods of Sufi mystics, playedimportant roles in the face of European colonialism in the nineteenthcentury. V I K R 10 Varieties of Islamic identities How religious differences in Islam translate into community distinctionscan be seen on three different levels.

One is the distinction betweentheological totalizing entities, primarily Sunnism and Shc ism. Another isbetween specific rites or schools of law Ar. Unlike the Sunnc-Shcc divide, madhhab divisions are partial, in thatthey only concern law and ritual practice. A third level of distinctiveness is that between Philips 109B5599 Monitor religious brotherhoodswithin Sunnc and Shcc Islam. Such brotherhoods or Sufi orders Ar.

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