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It seems clear that these titles were taken over into the imperial offices from the private corporations of tax-collectors, societates publicanorum, at the same time that the government assumed the responsibility for the raising of taxes. By the end of the second century these EPOX EP4PGAI and Vicemasters had disappeared, probably owing to a reorganization of the procuratorial system. In the third century appears another group of Masters. The title was then used of the officials in charge of the various departments curu, ojficia, scri1tia of the imperial administration centered at the capital. This can be seen at a glance from the transitional form of their titles, such as magister ab admissione, magister a celtsibus, and magtster a libellis.


It was probably under Diocletian, prior to A. One might think that the Masters of the priestly colleges, in which there was usually only one such official, furnished the model. But it was probably the general adaptability of this title, as indicating the EPOX EP4PGAI who assumed the direction or leadership in any field, that determined its adoption here. Meanwhile the Masters had made their reappearance in the financial administration. EPOX EP4PGAI

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In the course of the third century the director of the res privata became magister sacrae p. Both these titles disappeared before the close of the reign of Constantine I, and from then until towards A. In this branch of the administration the title of Master was probably used in imitation of the EPOX EP4PGAI in vogue in the secretarial departments. EPOX EP4PGAI the same time, in both East and West, the Master of the Sacred Inquests disappeared through the merging of his bureau with that of the Master of the Petitions.

Contemporary, also, is the abolition of the office and Mastership of the Records magister studiorum. The EPOX EP4PGAI of the Scrinia disappeared in the West EPOX EP4PGAI the establishment of the Gothic Kingdom in Italy, and, in the East, after the reign of Justinian they were known by their Greek titIes only.

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The date of the creation of the Mastership of the Offices and that of its disappearance EPOX EP4PGAI be discussed in the following pages. Service of tJu E,njJi,e, by A. XXVI 19 5pp. However, it was during the Later Empire that the title Master came to denote once more, as in the republican epoch, officers clothed with the highest military command.


This use of the Mastership was revived by Constantine I, probably in EPOX EP4PGAI of the Republican Mastership of the Horse. These EPOX EP4PGAI Masters at first had the specific titles of Master of the Foot magister peditum and Master of the Horse magister equitum.


But from tIle middle of the fourth century they began to be designated Masters of the Horse and Foot magistri etJu: In EPOX EP4PGAI East, from the time of Theodosius EPOX EP4PGAI, no further distinction between the infantry and cavalry commands was made, but in the West, officially at least, the difference was maintained. However, their number increased with the tendency of the rulers to divide the Imperial authority between two or more partners.

EPOX EP4PGAI the definite separation of the Empire into two parts, inthere were five Masters of the Soldiers in the East and three in the West. Under Justinian at least two new EPOX EP4PGAI were created. These military Masterships disappeared by the end of the seventh century, owing to the loss of the Western part of the Empire to the barbarians, and the civil and military reorganization in the East.

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The Senate had seen the spheres of governmel1t once under its control pass, one by one, into the hands of the Princeps and his officers, until finally, although it still continued to exist, that body, formerly so powerful, could claim no control whatever over the affairs of state. Not only had the position of the senate as an organ of government completely changed, but its character also had beell radically altered. The senatorial order was now a privileged class, comprising practically all the holders of important public offices, while the actual assemblies of the senate were composed chiefly of the highest officers of state. Thus EPOX EP4PGAI senate was made up of imperial officers and ex-officers.

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This development naturally removed all distinction between EPOX EP4PGAI and senatorial offices; while the contrast between the equestrian and the senatorial cursus honorum gave place to one between the purely military and the purely civil careers. The republican assemblies had long since ceased to be summoned, and such of the republican offices as still continued to be filled had lost all political power and had become merely honorary posts in the gift of the ruler.

The government of the Later EPOX EP4PGAI Empire was thus an undisguised absolutism. This conception of the position of the Emperor found fonnal expression at first in the deification of 17 i. The use of the diadem, and the attribution of the adjectives sacer and div: The Emperor was the sole possessor of legislative and execu five authority. The enormous increase in the number of the officials in the Later, over that in the Early, Empire was partly due to the desire of the emperors to prevent the rise of usurpers, and secure the peaceful succession to the imperial throne in a definitely settled fashion. Accordingly, no office was to be left so powerful that it could be made the basis of an attempt at an insurrection.

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The provinces, following a policy already initiated under the Principate, were divided and subdivided into smaller units until they numbered about one hundred and twenty, in place of the fortyfive of Hadrian s time. No longer was civil and military authority held by the same officer, and EPOX EP4PGAI a large number of purely military posts was created. Besides the greater number of officials required for the new administrative districts and the new military commands, a further increase in the ranks of the civil service was due to the extension of the central administrative bureaus developed from those of the older regime, and to the creation of a series of household officers in charge of the imperial palace. The appointment of these latter EPOX EP4PGAI was the result of the organization of the imperial court on a scale commensurate with the dignity of the autocratic sovereign, who thereby exalted himself above his subjects and by almost impenetrable barriers checked access to his person.

The administrative organization of the Roman Empire was. It was in these departments that the great army of government officers and their subordinates were employed. This bureaucratic organization, although the result of a development continuous throughout the first three centuries, received its definite fonn and dated its power from the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, the two Emperors who cast the Roman system of government into the fonn which it kept from the beginning of the fourth to the end of the sixth century. These were the heads of the army and of the administrative, judicial, and financial organs of the state; and alongside of them, because of their position at the head of similarly organized departments, lnay be placed the officers in control of the management of the imperial estates and of the imperial household.

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