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Coupling efficiency can be improved by the use of a lens between the source and the fiber.

The lens matches the output angle of the source to the acceptance angle of the fiber. From a transmission point of view, the Atech Lucent WDM Modem most important fiber param- eters are bandwidth and attenuation. The fundamental reason we are using fiber instead of copper cable is the increased bandwidth. Band- width is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequency information that can be transmitted by a system. A higher bandwidth implies a greater capacity for a channel to carry information. Bandwidth is tested using a very fast laser and a sensitive receiver. Software analyzes the difference between the input and the output pulses, and calculates the bandwidth of the fiber.

Table 1. As noted earlier, multimode fibers are generally specified by their bandwidth in a 1 km length, which ranges from MHz to 1 GHz. Fiber, Cables, and Connectors 15 Table 1. If the same fiber is required to carry a signal at twice this rate, or 1 GHz, we would only be able to use a link half as long, or 0. Bandwidth is inversely proportional to dispersion pulse spreadingwith the proportionality constant dependent on pulse shape and how band- width is defined. We have already mentioned that single-mode fiber is used at longer distances because it does not have intermodal dispersion. Other forms of dispersion are material dispersion because the index of refraction is a function of wavelength and waveguide dispersion because the propagation constant of a fiber waveguide is a function of wavelength. Detailed mathematical descriptions of these properties are beyond our scope.


Attenuation is a decrease in signal strength caused by absorption, scattering, and radiative loss. The power or amplitude loss is Atech Lucent WDM Modem measured in decibels dBwhich is a log scale. Attenuation in an optical fiber is a function of the operating wavelength. Typically, silica glass fibers have an attenuation minimum near 1. The attenuation is somewhat higher at 1. Thus, applications whose performance is likely to be dispersion limited, rather than loss limited, should operate at this point. There are also a number of specialty optical fibers available which have been optimized to have lower loss and higher bandwidth at different wavelengths. Fiber optic materials are made of very high purity materials less than a few parts per million to limit scattering loss. A common measurement of attenuation is the cutback method. The cutback method is typically used during fiber manufacturing.

To measure attenuation in the field or laboratory, a comparison is done with a reference cable.

Ten Commandments of Fiber Optics

It does not have modal dispersion, which distorts the signal pulse at long distances. It still experiences chromatic and material dispersion, and attenuation.

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It can be shown Atech Lucent WDM Modem that the condition for single-mode propagation in a fiber is that the normalized frequency V be less than 2. Fiber, Cables, and Connectors 17 For good single-mode performance, the normalized frequency V should lie between about 1.

For values above 2. If b is zero, then the mode cannot propagate through the fiber. The wavelength for which this condition holds is known as the cutoff wave- length.

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It is the result of the solution of the electromagnetic wave equa- tions propagating down a waveguide. The cutoff frequency can be found on the graph when 1 0. In Table 1. A fiber of this type should be able to transmit data unrepeated over many kilometers. Fiber, Cables, and Connectors 19 1. The optimum profile occurs for q slightly less than 2, which results in the minimal dispersion. The Atech Lucent WDM Modem number of modes that can propagate in a multimode fiber N is given by the following expression, valid for large V numbers only: Like any other diffraction grating, they rely on the Bragg Effect constructive interference from a diffraction grating to reflect light over a narrow wavelength range and transmit all other wavelengths, but they also can be designed to have more complex spectral responses. The phenomenon is called photosensitivity [10, 11]. Using this effect, periodic diffraction gratings can be written in the core of an optical fiber.

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This was first achieved by interference between light propagating along the fiber and its own reflection from the fiber endface [12]; this is known as the internal writing technique and the resulting gratings are known as Hill gratings. Another approach is the transverse holographic technique in which the fiber is irradiated from the side by two beams which intersect at an angle within the fiber core. Gratings can also be Atech Lucent WDM Modem in the fiber core by irradiating the fiber through a phase mask with a periodic structure.

There are many applications for FBGs in optical communications and optical sensors, such as tapped optical delay lines, filters, multiplex- ers, optical strain gauges, and others an extensive review is provided in references [13, 14]. Although Atech Lucent WDM Modem appears as the manufacturer, it is not.

Lucent makes the chips and other companies assemble the modems. So, this driver is a generic one.

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Atech Modem Drivers. modemzip (This driver is to be use only with . Lucent WDM Modem Enumerator Lucent Win Lucent t00 driver.


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