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They said that: The CPU dispatch, coupled with optimizations, is designed to optimize performance across Intel and AMD processors to give the best results. This is clearly our AMD All chipsets CPUID and with one exception we believe we are there now. The one exception is that our 9. The future I have later found out that others have made similar complaints to Intel and got similarly useless answers link link. It also checks for specific processor models.

List of AMD CPU microarchitectures - Wikipedia

In fact, it will fail to recognize future Intel processors with a family number different from 6. When I mentioned this to the Intel engineers they replied: You mentioned we will not support future Intel processors with non-'6' family designations without a compiler update. Yes, that is correct and intentional. Our compiler produces code which we have high confidence will continue to run in the future. This has the effect of not assuming anything about future Intel or AMD or other processors. You have noted we could be more aggressive. We believe that would not be wise for our customers, who want a level of security that their code built with our compiler will continue to run far into the future.

Your suggested AMD All chipsets CPUID, while they may sound reasonable, are not conservative enough for our highly optimizing compiler. Our experience steers us to issue code conservatively, and update the compiler when we have had a chance to verify functionality with new Intel and new AMD processors. That means there is a AMD All chipsets CPUID sometime in our production release support for new processors. In other words, they claim that they are optimizing for specific processor models rather than for specific instruction sets.

List of AMD CPU microarchitectures

If AMD All chipsets CPUID, this gives Intel an argument for not supporting AMD processors properly. But it also means that all software developers who use an Intel compiler have to recompile their code and distribute new versions to their customers every time a new Intel processor appears on the market. Now, this was three years ago. What happens if I try to run a program compiled with an old version of Intel's compiler on the newest Intel processors? You guessed it: It still runs the optimal code path. But the reason is more difficult to guess: Intel have manipulated the CPUID family numbers on new processors in such a way that they appear as known models to older Intel software.

I have described the technical details elsewhere. Perhaps the initial design of Intel's CPU dispatcher was indeed intended to optimize for known processor models only, without regard for future models.

If any of my students had made such a solution that was not future-oriented, I would consider it a serious flaw. Perhaps the Intel engineers discovered the missing support for future processors too late so that they had to design the next generation of their processors in such a way that they appeared as known models to existing Intel software.


After Intel had flatly denied to change their CPU dispatcher, I decided that the most efficient way to make them change their minds was to create publicity about the problem. The branch prediction unit is decoupled and can start working as soon as it receives a desired operation such as a redirect, ahead of traditional instruction fetches. AMD still uses a hashed perceptron system similar to the one used AMD All chipsets CPUID Jaguar and Bobcatalbeit likely much more finely tuned.

AMD stated it's also larger than previous architectures but did not disclose actual sizes. The BP includes a entry return stack. This was done to allow for more-aggressive AMD All chipsets CPUID by allowing the physical address to be retrieved at an earlier stage. ITLB is composed of: Zen features an asymmetric level 1 cache with a 64 KiB instruction cachedouble the size of the L1 data cache. Actual tests show the effective throughput is generally much lower around bytes. This is slightly higher than the fetch window in Intel 's Skylake. The F6 key copies the current page in the clipboard. The F7 key saves the validation cvf file in the current directory.


The F9 key switches between CPU clock computation methods. Mainboard and chipset.

Memory type, size, timings, and module specifications (SPD). Real time measurement of each core's internal frequency, memory. Test your CPU and GPU stability and cooling at maximum power and This is not every day that we add the AMD All chipsets CPUID of a new x86 manufacturer in CPU-Z. Today we informations about the core components of a PC: CPU, chipset, memory.

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