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The type and extent of equal-ization depend on the medium. Whatever, control amplificationand Protech PS-8851A Audio compression are necessary, and this affects the soundquality and the audio chain.


Furthermore, if you consider the factthat for each of the three media tape, Protech PS-8851A Audio, broadcast mastertape and mother tape are used, you can easily understand thatthe narrow dynamic range available from conventional taperecorders becomes a bottle neck which affects the whole process. To summarize, in spite of all the spectacular improvements inanalog technology, it is clear that the original dynamic range isstill seriously affected in the analog reproduction chain. Similar limits to other factors affecting the system frequencyresponse, signal-to-noise ratio, distortion, etc.

These reasons prompted man-ufacturers to turn to digital techniques for Protech PS-8851A Audio reproduction. The impression gained by most peoplewho heard it was that the fidelity of the sound produced by thedigital equipment could not be matched by any conventional taperecorder.

This was mainly because the limits Protech PS-8851A Audio by theconventional tape recorder simply no longer occurred. As shown in Figure VIa, the main reason why conventional ana-log tape recorders cause such a deterioration of the original sig-nal is firstly Protech PS-8851A Audio the magnetic material on the tape actuallycontains distortion components before anything is actuallyrecorded. Secondly, the medium itself is non-linear, i.


Distortion is, therefore, built in to the very heart of everyanalog tape recorder. In PCM recording Figure VIbhowever,the original bit value pattern corresponding to the audio Protech PS-8851A Audio thus the audio signal itself, can be fully recovered, even ifthe recorded signal is distorted by tape non-linearities and othercauses.


After this demonstration at least, there were no grounds fordoubting the high sound quality achievable by PCM techniques. The engineers and music lovers who were present at this firstpublic PCM playback demonstration, however, had no idea whenthis equipment would be commercially available, and many ofthese people had only the vaguest concept of the effect whichPCM recording systems would have on the audio industry. Nevertheless, highest quality record production at that time wasby the direct cutting method, in which the lacquer master is cutwithout using master and mother tapes Protech PS-8851A Audio the productionprocess: Limitations due to analog tape recorderswere thus side-stepped. Protech PS-8851A Audio direct cutting sounds quitesimple in principle, it is actually extremely difficult in practice.

First of all, all the required musical and technical personnel, theperformers, the mixing and cutting engineers, have to be assem-bled together in the same place at the same time. Then the wholepiece to be recorded must be performed right through frombeginning to end with no mistakes, because the live source is feddirectly to the cutting head. If PCM equipment could be perfected, high-quality records couldbe produced while solving the problems of time and value posedby direct cutting.

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PCM recording meant that the process after themaking of the master tape could be completed at leisure. This machine was the starting point for thePCM recording systems which are at present marketed by Sony,after much development and adaptation. The time period occupied by 1 bit in the stream of bits compos-ing a PCM encoded signal is determined by the sampling fre-quency and the number of quantization bits. If, say, a samplingfrequency of 50 kHz is chosen sampling period 20 sand that A short history of audio Protech PS-8851A Audio 9 a bit quantization system is used, then the time period occu-pied by 1 bit when making a two-channel Protech PS-8851A Audio will be about0.

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In order to ensure the success of the recording, detectionbits for the error-correction system will also have to be included. Bearing in mind this bandwidth requirement, the most suitablepractical recorder is a video tape recorder VTR. To successfully record a video signal, a bandwidthof several megahertz is necessary, and it is a happy coincidencethat this makes the VTR eminently Protech PS-8851A Audio for recording a PCMencoded audio signal. The suitability of the VTR as an existing recording medium meantthat the first PCM tape recorders were developed as two-unit sys-tems comprising a VTR and a digital audio processor.

The latterwas connected directly to an analog hi-fi system for actual repro-duction. Such a device, the PCM-1, was first marketed by Sonyin In the following year, the PCM digital audio processor forprofessional applications was marketed.


In Protech PS-8851A Audiothe use of The most famous namesamong the American speaker manufacturers Protech PS-8851A Audio theirlatest products using a PCM-1 digital audio processor and a con-sumer VTR as the sound source. Compared with the situationonly a few years ago, when the sound quality available from taperecorders was regarded as being of relatively low standard, thetesting of speakers using a PCM tape recorder marked a totalreversal of thought.

The audio industry had made a major steptowards true fidelity to the original sound source, through thetotal redevelopment of the recording medium which used tocause most degradation of the original signal. At the same time, a committee for the standardization Protech PS-8851A Audio mattersrelating to PCM audio processors using consumer VTRs wasestablished, in Japan, by 12 major electronics companies.

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This standard basicallyagreed on a bit linear data format for consumer digital audioapplications. The first commercial processor for domestic use according to thisEIAJ standard, which gained great popularity, was the nowfamous PCM-F1 launched in Established inProtech Systems Co., Protech PS-8851A Audio. specializes in the design and manufacturing of industrial PCs, automation products and.

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